By Susanne Klaus
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Electron microscopy of brown adipose tissue anlage of a 19 days old fetus. An adipoblast in close association with a capillary (CAP) is visible. The blast-like characteristics of this cell are: the big nucleolus with well visible nucleolonema (Nu) and the cytoplasm rich of ribosomes and polyribosomes. Note the numerous “pre-typical” mitochondria. L: lipid droplet; Pl: platlets. 11,200x. 22 Adipose Tissues appear in the cytoplasm of poorly differentiated cells. We distinguish two stages in this step of differentiation: stage 2 (adipoblast stage 2) in which the lipids are in a unilocular form and stage 3 (adipocyte precursors) in which lipids are disposed in a multilocular form.
14. Cinti S, Cigolini M, Morroni M et al. S-100 protein in white preadipocytes: An immunoelectronmicroscopic study. Anat Rec 1989; 224(4):466-472. 15. Cancello R, Zingaretti MC, Sarzani R et al. Leptin and UCP1 genes are reciprocally regulated in brown adipose tissue. Endocrinology 1998; 139(11):4747-4750. 16. Fawcett DW. A Textbook of Histology. 12th ed. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1994. 17. Ghadially FN. Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix. 4th ed. Boston: ButterworthHeinemann, 1997.
104,105 However GH appears to have an additional effect besides stimulating mitoses through IGF-1 production. Growth hormone promotes diacylglycerol production from phosphatidylcholine breakdown and thus activates protein kinase C activity (PKC). 106 However the most critical role of GH is related to cell differentiation. 108 Despite all these observations, the role of GH in adipogenesis remains somewhat confusing. , at a step downstream of ADD-1/SREBP-1c expression. 110 In order to reconcile conflicting data in GH action, it is assumed that clonal and primary preadipocytes represent early and late stages of the differentiation process, respectively, as primary preadipocytes should have been previously exposed to GH and «primed» in vivo.
Adipose Tissues by Susanne Klaus